Document Type : review paper


Department of English, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran



This review paper focuses on higher-order thinking skills, the philosophical, psychological, and as well as pedagogical foundations of higher-order thinking skills. Moreover, it presents the strategies that foster higher-order thinking skills as far as the teaching of writing skill is concerned. The improvement of such skills is considered as an important issue in formal education as they can contribute have a contributing effect on the individuals’ ability to deal with the challenges in the contemporary world whose knowledge is rapidly changing. Moreover, several teaching approaches strategies are presented and discussed in this regard. Among the different teaching strategies and assessment methods to cultivate higher-order-thinking skills in EFL students, the infusion of writing-based portfolio assessment, multiple intelligence, and dialogic feedback seem to be efficacious productive, interactive assessment methods. It is also suggested to integrate the higher-order thinking skills into the curriculum. as itIt is well-accepted that they help students to promptly employ their talents, maintain success in high levels, develop their performance, and most importantly become independent lifelong learners.